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Патент USA US2359618

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Oct. 3-,‘1944.
P. F. BYRNE
2,359,618
SHORT WAVE AMPLIFIER
Original Filed March 22, 1939
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INVENTOR.
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Patented Oct. 3, 1944
2,359,618 '
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,359,618
SHORT-WAVE AMPLIFIER
Paul F. Byrne, West Caldwell, N. J., assignor to
Federal Telephone and Radio Corporation, a
corporation of Delaware
Original application March 22, 1939, Serial No. _
263,367. Divided and this application Novem
ber 28, 1941, Serial No. 420,794
2 Claims. (01. 178-44)
My invention relates to high frequency trans
objects of my invention and the manner of at
mission systems and more particularly to radio
taining them will be apparent from a particular
description of my invention'made in accordance
with the accompanying drawing, in which
Fig. 1 illustrates a preferred embodiment of a
radio transmitter made in accordance with my
frequency transmission circuits-adapted to supply
energy to two or more symmetrical loads from an
unsymmetrical source of supply or from a single
symmetrical two conductor line or loop. This
invention is a division of my copending applica
invention,
tion Serial No. 263,367, ?led March 22, 1939, and
entitled (‘Short-wave transmitters,” issued on
Fig. 2 illustrates a ‘form of split stator con-_
denser suitable for use in the modulation system
June 9, 1942, as Patent No. 2,285,851.
‘ 10
It is often desirable to transmit energy from an
of Fig. 1, and
>
‘
frequency multiplier grounded on one side, to two
or more symmetrical loads, for example, radiat
Fig. 3 illustrates an alternative modulation
system in accordance with my invention which
may be‘used in place of that disclosed in Fig. 1.
Turning now to the drawing‘and particularly
ticularly useful for supplying energy to transmit
ting antennae which may be usedfor defining
quency energy which may be, for example, an 0's
cillator or a frequency multiplier.v In source I00
a beacon course, since under these circumstances
] at I02 is indicated a vacuum tube which may mp
it is desirable that the load be properly balanced
resent the last stage of the radio frequency cir
unsymmetrical source such as an oscillator or
ing antennae. This type ‘of arrangement is‘par 15' to Fig. 1, I00 represents a source of radio fre
in order that the system be efilcient and a suitable 20 cuit within I00. The anode of tube I02 is con
, radiation pattern be secured. Furthermore, in
nected to a positive voltage. supply as indicated.
beacon systems it is often desired‘ to separately
adjust the power fed to each of the radiating
and is connectedthrough the primary of trans
former I03 to ground for ‘radio frequencies
antennae, so that the course line may be prop
through the radio frequency condenser IOI.
erly defined and maintained. Similarly it may be 25 Transformer I03 is designed for high frequencies
desired to connect two or'more balanced lines
and constitutes a single turn for the primary and
over which energy is transmitted to a single un
balanced line or to a single balanced line.
It is an object of my invention to provide a
secondary so that the coupling between the pri- '
mary and secondary is made by means of a dis
tributed inductance and capacity only. Coupling
radio frequency transmission system which is 30 transformer I03 is made adjustable so that the
suitable for intercoupling two or more balanced
coupling between the windings may be varied.
lines and an unbalanced line.
The secondary of the transformer I03 iscon
It is a further object of my invention to pro
vide a radio transmitter in which energy from an
unbalanced source is applied to a plurality oi’ an
tennae each connected to a separate balanced
nected to ground on one side and on the other side
to a transmission line I04, through a variable
power controlling condenser I05. It is evident
that this arrangement forms an unsymmetrical
line.
,
line portion. This unsymmetrical line is con
It is a further object of my invention to pro
nected to a push-pull ampli?er comprising vacu
vide in a radio transmitter a system which per
um tubes I08, I01. Since, in order for the vacu
mits the independent adjustment of energy to the 40 um tubes to operate properly in push-pull the
separate balanced-antennae.
'
It is a still further object of my invention to
provide the combination of a radio frequency
source, a balanced ampli?er and a plurality of
7 input thereto should be balanced, I provide a net
work to achieve this balance indicated generally
at I00. At lower ratio frequencies balanced in
put may be obtained by merely grounding the
balanced loads connected to the output of the 45 center point of a transformer and connecting the
ampli?er.
'
outer ends through lines to the grid. However,
at higher frequencies balance cannot be obta'ne'd
It is a still further object of my invention to
provide a radio transmitter with a balanced line 7 ‘ so simply.
feed for two or more separate antennae, in which
the energy fed to the antennae may be separately
modulated or keyed.
It is a still further object of my invention to
provide a novel keying‘arrangement for use with
a pair of symmetrical radio-beacon antennae.
The above mentioned and further features and 55
A balance may be obtained by con- ‘
necting in series across the line a pairof im
pedances such as “0, III, and connecting these
impedances to ground through a third impedance
H2. In the circuit shown in Fig. 1, impedances
H0 and III areinductances, whereas impedance
III is a condenser. A balance may be obtained
in this way provided impedances H0, and III are‘
2.
assaoie
properly related to impedance 6 ii.’ in value and
lation in such as to preserve the symmetry of the
system. In the arrangement according to Fig. 1,
I provide, for modulating the antennae, a ?lter,
comprising resonant’ quarter wavelength frames
I32 and I33 constituting sections of transmission
line and loosely coupled to the transmission line.
These frames are coupled to the transmission line
are of a sign opposite to that of I it. In the pre
ferred arrangement impedances lid and iii are
made equal and impedance H2 is made equal to
one-half the value of either of the impedances
i it, or Iii. However, a considerable departure
from this relationship may occur in practice,
approximate equality of impedances lid and iii
inductively primarily through capacitive induc
tion and may be precisely tuned by means of trim
being su?lcient, and a. considerable variation in
the relationship of the impedance values of H2 10 ming condensers I34, i 35. When these frames are
and H9, HI being permissible for most applica
properly positioned with respect to the trans
tions.
mission line and accurately tuned, they will op
In order that a complete balance may be
obtained inductances iId andv iii are arranged
erate to substantially stop all of the energy from
so as to have very little, if any, mutual coupling
?owing along the transmission line. Although
I have illustrated these tuned coupled sectionsv
between them. IA blocking condenser lid is pro
vided between inductance Ill and the junction
as open-ended frames, they may have other
points of Hill and M2, so that grid bias power
may be supplied to the grid of tubes lot and 6 ill
through the leads lid, lid’ independently of each
forms, such as closed frames of proper length or
may be of various other formations. For struc~
tural details of the various forms of transmission
other. This arrangement permits the use of sep 20 modifying networks, reference may be had to
arate grid meters to indicate the operation of the
Patent No. 2,159,648, issued May 23, 1939, on an
tubes. The output circuit of the vacuum tubes
application of Andrew Alford, Ser. No. 162,353
66S, Iill, is connected to a high frequency variable
?led September 8, 1937. Since the ?ltering ac
transformer its, the primary of which is con
tion of coupled transmission line sections, such
nected to a power supply ‘through radio frequency
as shown at I32 and 933 are very critical with
choke H6. Tuning condensers till are provided
tuning, their effect on the flow of energythrough
to tune the output of push-pull ampli?er. Cou=
transmission lines I28, E29, may be modi?ed by
pied to the secondary of transformer t id are con
slightly detuning the section. This fact is made
doctors I I8, lit, which together form a balanced
use of in producing the modulation of the energy
output line. The separate conductors Ila, IIII, 30 transmitted to the antennae. Across each of
are unbalanced with respect to ground so that
networks I32, I33, I provide split-stator con
each conductor may be considered as a further
densers I36, I31. These condensers are arranged
unsymmetrical line. The midpoint of the sec
with the ?xed plates coupled to the separate con
ondery of transformer lid is grounded so that in
ductors of the transmission line, while the rotary
effect each of lines H8 and I I9 may be considered 35 plates are driven at a uniform rate by means of
as an independent unbalanced line with a ground
a motor I40 or other means. Condensers H36 and
I3‘! may be made with a different number oi.’
return. In lines .I I8, H9, are provided variable
condensers no, I2I which may serve to inde
pendently control the power output over the re
spective lines.
'
notches in the stator plate so that the energy
?owing along transmission lines I28, i253 is in
40 terrupted at a different rate to impress a different
,
In line H8 is provided another high frequency
modulation upon the energy radiated from an
network which serves to-produce a balanced out
tennae I30, I3I.
put from the unsymmetrical line H8. This net
work comprises inductance elements I22, I“,
One form of split-stator condenser suitable for
use in the system of Figure l, is illustrated in
' connected similar to inductance elements H0, 45 Figure 2. This condenser comprises ?xed toothed
and II Land to a variable condenser unit I28, cor
stators 2!", 202, connected to the opposite side
responding to condenser H2. Condenser I26 is
of a. balanced line 260, and a. single rotary plate
made, variable so that its impedance may be ad
element 203. When 203 is rotated at a uniform
justed to balance precisely transmission line I28.
rate the tuning of the condenser is varied
Similarly, line H9 is branched to form a. bal 50 periodically, depending upon the speed of the
anced transmission line I29 through a network
rotor 203 and the number of teeth on stator plates
comprising inductance elements I23, and I25, and
2III,~202. Thus a chopping or keying of energy
may be accomplished by means of this rotary con
a variable capacity element I 21.
To the outer end of transmission line I 28 is
denser connected across a tuned frame such as
coupled an antenna I30, shown as a dipole an
I32. The frequency of modulation may be varied
by varying the number of teeth on the con-'
tenna, and to line I29 is coupled another dipole
antenna I3I. While I have shown antennae I30
denser or by driving the rotors of the condensers
and lil , as dipoles, it should be distinctly under
at different speeds. The percentage or depth of
stood that they may be of any desired form so
modulation may be controlled by so choosing the
.long as they are designed to form a balanced load. 60 condensers as to provide the desired preciseness
Furthermore, it is clear that instead of leading
to antennae, transmission lines I28 and I29 may
lead to any desired type of symmetrical load.
of tuning of the coupled sections.
While in ‘Fig. 1 I have illustrated the arrange
ment wherein an ampli?er is utilized between
the source of radio frequency oscillation and the
If it is desired to use antennae I30 and I3I as a
radio beacon, these antennae should be arranged
load, it should be distinctly understood that this
ampli?er may be omitted, and the enégrgy and
ampli?cation taken care of in other parts of the
circuit, if desired. Also, it should be understood
'thatthe balancing network need not be com-'
,70. posed of two induotances and a single capacity as
shown, but maybe of any form of impedance so
long as they satisfy the requirement speci?ed
above. It is thus clear that in place of inductances III) and III of I08, equal capacities should
at a suitable angle with respect to each other to ‘
produce the desired wave pattern. Arrangements
of antennae for radio beacon transmission are
well known so no speci?c illustration thereof is
made in this application.
_
In order that'the signals from the separate
antennae may be distinguished, I provide means
to modulate the energy fed to the antennae to
form the distinctive signals. Any desired modu
lating means may be used as the method of modu
is
be substituted therefor and an inductance. reac
2,859,618
3
Similarly, the impedance element in the network ‘
wavelength short circuited ?lter across the main
line preventing substantially all of the energy
from ?owing to the antenna. vThus the modula
tion may be obtained by' interrupting the ?ow of
associated with the separate ‘antennae circuit
could be of different values if desired without
cuiting switch 343. Similarly modulations may
altering the scope of my invention.
be e?ected in the energy of line 329 by short cir
cuiting switch 344. These switches may be pro
tion used in place of condenser H2. However,
I prefer to use the inductance arrangement since
it permits a separate energization of the grid.
It should
further be understood, according to the general
energy along the line by means of the short cir
.vided with a plurality of segments so as to
reciprocity theorum, that instead of a transmit»
ter, the system may constitute a receiving ar 10 interrupt the ?ow at different rates in the two
rangement. Antennae I30, i3! receive radio sig
different lines so as to provide'diiierent modula
tions of the energy for the two loads. If it is de
nals and transmit them over balanced lines to
an unbalanced receiver. In Fig. 3, I have il1us~
sired to utilize less than 100%. modulation, short
trat d an alternative form of modulating system
circuiting bars 345, 346 may be changed in posi
which may be substituted for that illustrated in 15 tion so as to alter the length of the section from
Fig. 1. In this arrangement 320, 32!, 3l8 and
that of a full half-wavelength.
3l9, represent the power adjusting condensers
While I have described my invention with
and the conductors of the transmission line simi
references to ?gures illustrating a preferred em
lar to that disclosed in Fig. 1. Similarly the
bodiment thereof, it should be understood that
network ‘comprises inductances 322, 324 and 20 this description is merely by way of illustration
capacity 326, and inductances 323, 325, capacity
and not a limitation of the scope of my inven
326, correspond to similar elements in Fig. 1.
tion, which is de?ned in the accompanying claims.
Loads 330, 33I, may be antennae corresponding
What I claim is:
‘
to I30, H! or any other form of symmetrical
1. Radio frequency system including an un
load. The IroduIatin-g system, however, differs 25 balanced energy source, two push-pull electronic
from that shown in Fig. 1. At MI, 342 are illus
trated two half-wave length short circuited
frames connected at the proper point across bal
tubes, means for feeding said tubes from said‘
source in symmetry, including, connected be
tween theinput grids of said tubes, two induc
anced transmission lines 328, 329, respectively.
tances connected adjacent to each grid and a
At a point midway of the length of transmission 30 blocking condenser connected between said in
line sections 34l, 342 are provided short circuit
ductances, so that the direct current potential ing switches 343, 344, which are driven by means
of said two grids may be independent, 9. second
of a motor 34!). Adjustable short circuiting bars
condenser connected from one side of said ?rst
345, 345, are provided on each of the sections
condenser to ground, unbalanced feed means ex
85 tending from said source to ground and directly
34!, 342.
This modulating system operates as follows:
to one of said grids, and grid biasing means con
nected respectively to the two sides of said block
When a short circuiting switch 343 is crosswise
ing condenser.
‘
'
so as to short circuit the network 34|,~this net
2. System according to claim 1, additionally
work forms a short circuited quarter wavelength
line connected across transmission line 328. 40 including a variable condenser connected in series
between said source and the grid fed directly
Aside from resistance and radiation losses'the
circuit will not drain nor hamper ?ow of energy
therefrom, said variable condenser being of a
along transmission line to load 330. When
value not in?uencing the balancing of said sys
switch 343 is turned to the open position the eilec
tem, but acting as a variable‘ power adjusting
tive circuit from the transmission line extends 45 means.
out to the short—circuited end of the halt-wave
‘PAUL F. BYRNE.
length section 34l. This then constitutes a half
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